Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 91

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113

Warning: date() [function.date]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113

Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113

Warning: mktime() [function.mktime]: It is not safe to rely on the system's timezone settings. You are *required* to use the date.timezone setting or the date_default_timezone_set() function. In case you used any of those methods and you are still getting this warning, you most likely misspelled the timezone identifier. We selected 'America/New_York' for 'EST/-5.0/no DST' instead in /home/dirtya5/public_html/include/Modules/Statistics/Attendance/Broker.php on line 113
DirtyAviston.com - State
DirtyAviston.com
Promoting Public Awareness of the Outdoor Wood Boiler (OWB) also known as the Outdoor Wood Furnace (OWF) also known as the Outdoor Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater (OWHH)
Promoting Public Awareness of the Outdoor Wood Boiler (OWB) also known as the Outdoor Wood Furnace (OWF) also known as the Outdoor Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater (OWHH)
Federal
Industry
Other
State


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The Problems With Outdoor Wood-Fired Boilers (OWBs)

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Vermont Wood-Burning Primer

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Illinois Compiled Statutes:

Section 9:  Acts Prohibited:

No person shall cause or threaten or allow the discharge or emission of any contaminant into the environment in any State so as to cause or tend to cause air pollution in Illinois, either alone or in combination with contaminants from other sources, or so as to violate regulations or standards adopted by the Board under this Act

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State of Maine Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Air Quality:

Compare Costs of Energy Choices:

Annual Cost to Heat an Average Maine Home:

Energy Star Natural Gas Furnace or Boiler: $2,020 
           Conventional Outdoor Wood Boiler: $2,263

Outdoor Wood Boiler Costs $243 More!

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Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection
Are OWFs Harmful to the Environment and Human Health?

Yes,
OWFs produce a lot of thick smoke, which in addition to being a nuisance to neighbors has serious health and air pollution impacts. Smoke from OWFs contains unhealthy amounts of particulate matter (PM), dioxin, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrochloric acid, formaldehyde and other toxic air pollutants.

Exposure to PM in smoke from an OWF can increase adverse respiratory and cardiovascular symptoms. Exposure to other pollutants listed above is associated with a diverse range of harmful health effects, including asthmatic sensitivity, lung illnesses and cancer. Studies show that children, the elderly and individuals with pre-existing cardio-respiratory diseases or diabetes are most at risk.
Why do OWFs produce so much unhealthy smoke?

The basic design causes fuel to burn incompletely. OWF systems consist of a single closed combustion chamber, or firebox, that is surrounded by a water jacket. Since wood cannot be combusted completely at temperatures below 1000°F, the steel firebox surfaces backed up by water at 150°F chill and quench the flames before combustion is complete. As a result, smoke is produced. The smoke and combustion products are vented through a smokestack directly to the outside air.

Another reason why OWFs produce smoke is the operation during "off" cycles. When an OWF does not need to generate heat, the combustion air fan is turned off and/or the air damper closes, thereby starving the fire for air. The fire then smolders, creating smoke and creosote that condenses on the cold steel internal surfaces. When heat needs to be produced, the air dampers open and/or a small fan forces combustion air into the firebox, thereby pushing the smoke and air pollutants out the stack

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Northeast States for Coordinated Air Use Management (NESCAUM) Assessment of
 Outdoor Wood-fired Boilers


ISSUES UNIQUE TO OWBS:

Unit Design: The smoke from OWBs appears to be greater than other wood burning appliances for several reasons. Primarily, it is because of the basic design of OWBs. Even when operated properly with seasoned wood, OWBs typically generate significant amounts of smoke.

 
Combustion Cycle: The primary reason for the large amounts of smoke is the cyclic nature of the device. When an OWB is in the “off” cycle and does not need to generate heat, the air damper closes to cut off the air supply. This creates an oxygen-starved environment in which the fire smolders, creating smoke and creosote that condenses on the internal steel surfaces. When heat needs to be produced, the air damper opens and natural draft forces air into the firebox, pushing the smoke and air pollutants out the stack.
 
Stack Height: Another contributing factor to OWB smoke is the short stack height of OWBs. Manufacturer installation literature specifies stack heights that are generally eight to
twelve feet from the ground. Stack heights this short typically fail to disperse smoke adequately, resulting in excessive ground level smoke. Certain weather conditions aggravate this situation, such as cold weather inversions when the smoke does not rise but stays close to the ground.
 
Efficiency: Review of available data indicates that the operating efficiencies of OWBs are extremely low, often half the efficiency of other residential wood burning devices such as woodstoves. EPA Test results indicate that, in general, most OWB units will have operating efficiencies in the range of 30 to 40 percent.
 
Fuel Quality: The design of the OWBs encourages burning of inappropriate materials. State agencies have documented the burning of wet, large, un-split wood, wood waste, yard waste, refuse, tires and railroad ties. In fact some manufacturer’s websites state the ability to burn green or scrap wood as one of the benefits of OWBs.

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New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services:


Smoldering fires and short smokestacks may create heavy smoke close to the ground that sometimes causes a neighborhood nuisance or an adverse impact on public health and the environment. Smoke fromOWBs can  contain emissions of fine particle pollution, carbon monoxide, and other organicproducts, such as formaldehyde, benzene and aromatic hydrocarbons, which form from incomplete combustion. When inhaled, fine particles from smoke emissions are carried deepinto the lungs and can impair lung function and aggravate existing medical conditions such asasthma, lung or heart disease. Exposure to some pollutants in smoke can even cause cancer.

New Hampshire State Law:  NonPhase I or II units (like the one in Aviston): Must be 200 feet from nearest abutting residence; stack height must be two feet higher than the peak of a residence or business not served by the unit, which is located within 300 feet.

Burn only dry, wellseasoned wood that meets the definition of “clean” wood. Neverburn wet, rotted, diseased or moldy wood.

Regularly remove ashes from the OWB into a metal container with a cover and properly cool before disposing.

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Michigan Outdoor Wood Boiler & Air Quality Fact Sheet 

 

 

 

 

TOP THREE REASONS TO AVOID OUTDOOR WOOD BOILERS

1. Incomplete combustion = smoke: Many outdoor wood boilers generate a lot of smoke! A large water jacket usually surrounds the firebox. This is good for heating water, but it cools the escaping gases before combustion is complete.

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Wisconsin Department of Health Services 
Guidance for local government and public health officials on the use and regulation of outdoor wood boilers (OWBs).

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Illinois Compiled Statutes (ILCS): (415 ILCS 5/3.115)  

Sec. 3.115. Air pollution. "
Air Pollution" is the presence in the atmosphere of one or more contaminants in sufficient quantities and of such characteristics and duration as to be injurious to human, plant, or animal life, to health, or to property, or to unreasonably interfere with the enjoyment of life or property.

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Outdoor wood-fired boilers (OWF/OWB) are banned in the State of Washington  

OWBs cause dense smoke, this smoke endangers your health and that of your family and neighbors, as well as harming the environment. 
Tests found that the average fine particle emissions (a particularly harmful pollutant) from one OWB are equivalent to the emissions from 22 EPA certified wood stoves, 205 oil furnaces, or as many as 8,000 natural gas furnaces. One OWB can emit as much fine particle matter as four heavy duty diesel trucks on a grams per hour basis.

OWBs emit benzene, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, formaldehyde and other toxic partial combustion products which have been linked to asthma, heart attacks and cancer.

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Smoke Gets in Your Lungs:  
Outdoor Wood Boilers in New York State.  Attorney General of New York State, Environmental Protection Bureau, August 2005.

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Illinois Environmental Protection Agency  (EPA):  The best natural smoke dispersion conditions occur between 9 am to 6 pm.  This would mean that the worst time for smoke dispersion is from 6 pm to 9 am. 


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Georgia Forestry CommissionAt sunrise, smoke dispersion is low normally. On average, the best dispersion will be in the early to mid‑afternoon. After this period, smoke dispersion will start to degrade and towards sunset, it drops like a "rock".

 



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